Boris Vladimirovich Asafyev (Russian: Бори́с Влади́мирович Аса́фьев; 29 July [O.S. 17 July] 1884 – 27 January 1949) was a Russian and Soviet composer, writer, musicologist, musical critic and one of founders of Soviet musicology. He is the dedicatee of Prokofiev's First Symphony.
Asafyev had a strong influence on Soviet music. His compositions include ballets, operas, symphonies, concertos and chamber music. His ballets include Flames of Paris, based on the French Revolution, and The Fountain of Bakhchisarai, which was first performed in 1934, and was performed at the Mariinsky Theatre in St. Petersburg in 2006.
His writings, under the name Igor Glebov, include The Book about Stravinsky and Glinka (for which he was awarded the Stalin Prize in 1948).